1224 State Route 29
Greenwich, NY 12834

(518) 692-2040
Fax: (518) 692-2440
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Office Hours

Monday: Closed
Tuesday: 11:00-7:00
Wednesday: 8:45-5:00
Thursday: 8:45-5:00
Friday 8:45-5:00


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Sunday: Closed

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What is the Relationship between Eye Muscle Problems and Learning?

Vision & LearningSome of the mechanical visual skills which are related to reading include focusing or accommodation, eye teaming or tracking, and convergence or the ability for both eyes to look up close at the same place. Weaknesses in the binocular vision system may interfere with reading. There is also a relationship between eye movement skills such as saccades (whereby we change fixation from one target to the next) and smooth following movements known as pursuits and reading. Children who cannot make accurate eye movements are often found to skip lines and words while reading.

Binocular vision problems usually cannot be fixed with glasses alone. A treatment course of eye exercises done in the office and at home will help many binocular vision problems. Convergence insufficiency is the most common binocular vision problem in children.  Dr. Gardner screens for many of these visual function problems that can cause reading and learning trouble.  If glasses alone can not help with symptoms, Dr. Gardner will refer to her colleage, Dr. Robert Fox.  Dr. Fox is a Behavioral Optometrist who specializes in Vision Therapy and Vision Rebab after Traumatic Brain Injuries.

My Child Reverses Letters and Words. Does He See Backwards?

It has been presumed that children who reverse letters or words see them backwards. This is false. They have directional confusion. In the real world direction has no meaning. For example, a chair is a chair no matter which way it is placed. Changing direction does not change interpretation. In the world of language, direction changes meaning. Connect the bottom of a chair and it looks like a "b". Turn it 180 degrees it becomes a "d", flip it upside down and it becomes a "q" and flip it again it becomes a "p". Thus, direction changes meaning. The difference between "was" and "saw" is direction.

Visual processing disorders often cause problems in school because they affect the way the child processes and interprets information.


What Are the Other Visual Components Necessary for Academic Achievement?

As mentioned previously, we should correct all optical errors of the eyes (glasses); eliminate eye muscle problems; and create smooth accurate eye movements. In addition, we should make sure that we properly interpret what we see and use it appropriately. These are known collectively as perceptual skills and include form perception, size and shape recognition, visual memory, and visual motor integration (hand-eye coordination.)

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